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The Journal of Japanese Language Literature Studies > Volume 8(1); 2019 > Article
Border Crossings: The Journal of Japanese-Language Literature Studies 2019;8(1): 75-94.
doi: https://doi.org/10.22628/bcjjl.2019.8.1.75
The Motif of Children in Toson Shimazaki : A Comparison of Tsuda Sokichi's Evaluation of Basho Matsuo and Issa Kobayashi
Correspondence  Yutaka KURIHARA ,Email: klemkurin@akane.waseda.jp
Published online: 30 June 2019.
Copyright ©2019 The Global Institute for Japanese Studies, Korea University
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The purpose of this paper is to exmine the frequent use of children in works by Tōson Shimazaki(1872-1943) from the 1920s. The motif of children is apparent in texts such as Arashi (1926), Nobijitaku (1925), Bunpai (1927), all of which describe the relationship between a father and his children. The source of this child motif in Tōson’s work has traditionally been linked to the life he shared with his four children. However, it is significant that in essays from the same period he discusses Edo haiku poets Bashō Matsuo and Issa Kobayashi emphasizing their affinity with children. Additionally, after returning from France, Tōson attempted to identify a traditional spirit within classical Japanese literature. If it was his goal to unify the homeland(kokoku) and subject(shutai), then this motif of children, i.e., the intersection between the family and nation-state, should not be ignored.
To consider this question of the family and nation-state, I will first examine what kind ofthe logic Tōson’s essays were based upon. Sōkichi Tsuda’s(1873-1961) contemporary “Bungaku ni araharetatu waga kokuminshisō no kenkyu” (1916-21) sheds some light on this topic. In his view of literary history, Tsuda argued for an emerging relationship between a citizen(kokumin) and publicness(kōkyōsei). In his evaluation, almost all writers in the past period, save for Bashō and Issa lacked this sensitivity. The key to his critique was their attitude towards children. Tsuda believed that learning from children ― the Other in closest proximity to ourselves ― was a means to arriving at publicness. After demonstrating how Tsuda’s work influenced Tōson, I conclude that the child motif was a necessary tool for overcoming the creative challenges he was facing at the time.
Keywords: Tōson Shimazaki, Sōkichi Tsuda, Bashō Matsuo, Issa Kobayashi, Nationalism

キ―ワ―ド: 島崎藤村, 津田左右吉, 松尾芭蕉, 小林一茶, ナ ショナリズム
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